Evaluation of a novel animal milk oligosaccharide biosimilar: macronutrient digestibility and gastrointestinal tolerance, fecal metabolites, and fecal microbiota of healthy adult dogs and in vitro genotoxicity assays

Anne H. Lee, Sara Vidal, Patrícia M. Oba, Romain Wyss, Yong Miao, Yemi Adesokan, Kelly S. Swanson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Milk oligosaccharides (MO) are bioactive compounds in mammalian milk that provide health benefits to neonates beyond essential nutrients. GNU100, a novel animal MO biosimilar, was recently tested in vitro, with results showing beneficial shifts in microbiota and increased short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, but other effects of GNU100 were unknown. Three studies were conducted to evaluate the safety, palatability, and gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance of GNU100. In study 1, the mutagenic potential of GNU100 was tested using a bacterial reverse mutation assay and a mammalian cell micronucleus test. In study 2, palatability was assessed by comparing diets containing 0% vs. 1% GNU100 in 20 adult dogs. In study 3, 32 adult dogs were used in a completely randomized design to assess the safety and GI tolerance of GNU100 and explore utility. Following a 2-wk baseline, dogs were assigned to one of four treatments and fed for 26 wk: 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% GNU100. On weeks 2, 4, and 26, fresh fecal samples were collected to measure stool quality, immunoglobulin A, and calprotectin, and blood samples were collected to measure serum chemistry, inflammatory markers, and hematology. On weeks 2 and 4, fresh fecal samples were collected to measure metabolites and microbiota. On week 4, total feces were collected to assess apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility. Although revertant numbers were greater compared with the solvent control in tester strain WP2uvrA(pKM101) in the presence of metabolic activation (S9) in the initial experiment, they remained below the threshold for a positive mutagenic response in follow-up confirmatory tests, supporting that GNU100 is not mutagenic. Similarly, no cytotoxicity or chromosome damage was observed in the cell micronucleus test. The palatability test showed that 1% GNU100 was strongly preferred (P < 0.05; 3.6:1 consumption ratio) over the control. In study 3, all dogs were healthy and had no signs of GI intolerance or illness. All diets were well accepted, and food intake, fecal characteristics, metabolite concentrations, and macronutrient digestibilities were not altered. GNU100 modulated fecal microbiota, increasing evenness and Catenibacterium, Megamonas, and Prevotella (SCFA producers) and reducing Collinsella. Overall, the results suggest that GNU100 is palatable and well-tolerated, causes no genotoxicity or adverse effects on health, and beneficially shifts the fecal microbiota, supporting the safety of GNU100 for the inclusion in canine diets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of animal science
Volume99
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021

Keywords

  • canine nutrition
  • gastrointestinal functionality
  • microbiome
  • milk oligosaccharides
  • nutrient digestibility

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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