Evaluation of a Feline Bone Surrogate and in Vitro Mechanical Comparison of Small Interlocking Nail Systems in Mediolateral Bending

Danielle M. Marturello, Dirsko J.F. Von Pfeil, Loïc M. Déjardin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The aim of this study was to (1) evaluate bending structural properties of a machined short fibre epoxy (SFE) feline bone surrogate (FBS), (2) compare the bending behaviour of small angle-stable interlocking nails (I-Loc; Targon) and locking compression plates (LCP) and (3) evaluate the effect of implant removal on FBS bending strength. Methods Part 1: Feline cadaveric femurs (n = 10) and FBS (n = 4) underwent cyclic four-point bending and load to failure. Part 2: Fracture gap FBS constructs (n = 4/group) were stabilized in a bridging fashion with either I-Loc 3 and 4, Targon 2.5 and 3.0, LCP 2.0 and 2.4, then cyclically bent. Part 3: Intact FBS with pilot holes, simulating explantation, (n = 4/group) underwent destructive bending tests. Bending compliance, angular deformation and failure moment (F M) were statistically compared (p < 0.05). Results Native bone and FBS were similar for all outcome measures (p > 0.05). The smallest and largest bending compliance and angular deformation were seen in the I-Loc 4 and LCP 2.0 respectively (p < 0.05). While explanted Targon FBS had the lowest F M (p < 0.05), I-Loc and LCP constructs F M were not different (p > 0.05). Conclusion The similar bending properties of short fibre epoxy made FBS and native feline femurs suggest that this model could be used for mechanical testing of implants designed for feline long bone osteosynthesis. The I-Loc constructs smaller angular deformation which also suggests that these implants represent a valid alternative to size-matched Targon and LCP for feline fracture osteosynthesis. The significantly lower F M of explanted Targon may increase the risk of secondary fracture following implant removal.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number200056
Pages (from-to)223-233
Number of pages11
JournalVeterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2021


  • bending
  • bone surrogate
  • feline
  • interlocking nails
  • locking compression plate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • General Veterinary


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