Ethnic enclosure and perception of discrimination among Korean and Polish immigrants

Venera Bekteshi, Monika Stodolska, Sung Wan Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: This study examined the impact of social and economic enclosure on Korean and Polish immigrants’ perceptions of discrimination. Methods: The study was based on a survey of 403 first-generation Korean and Polish immigrants residing in Chicago, Illinois (IL) and its suburban communities. Using multiple regression analyses, we tested associations between social and economic enclosure and the perception of discrimination. Results: Social enclosure was significantly associated with the perception of discrimination among both Korean and Polish immigrants. Compared to their less socially enclosed counterparts, immigrants who were more socially enclosed perceived higher levels of discrimination. Economic enclosure significantly predicted perception of discrimination among Korean immigrants only. Conclusion: The study suggested that ethnic enclosure is not a protective factor from discrimination among these two groups of immigrants; instead, some forms of ethnic enclosure may intensify perception of discrimination from mainstream society.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)85-104
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of International Migration and Integration
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • Discrimination
  • Economic enclosure
  • Immigration
  • Korean
  • Polish
  • Social enclosure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Demography
  • Cultural Studies
  • Anthropology


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