Administration of estradiol-17β to male Xenopus laevis evokes the proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus and the synthesis and secretion by the liver of massive amounts of the egg yolk precursor phospholipoglycoprotein, vitellogenin. We have investigated the effects of estrogen on three key regulatory enzymes in lipid biosynthesis, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase, the major regulatory enzyme in cholesterol and isoprenoid synthesis, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which regulate fatty acid biosynthesis. HMG-CoA reductase activity and cholesterol synthesis increase in parallel following estrogen administration. Reductase activity in estrogen stimulated Xenopus liver cells peaks at 40-100 times the activity observed in control liver cells. The increased rate of reduction of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid is not due to activation of pre-existing HMF-CoA reductase by dephosphorylation, as the fold induction is unchanged when reductase from control and estrogen-stimulated animals is fully activated prior to assay. The estrogen-induced increase of fatty acid synthesis is paralleled by a 16- to 20-fold increase of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, indicating that estrogen regulates fatty acid synthesis at the level of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Fatty acid synthetase activity was unchanged during the induction of fatty acid biosynthesis by estrogen. The induction of HMG-CoA reductase and of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by estradiol-17β provides a useful model for regulation of these enzymes by steroid hormones.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - 1981|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology