Estimating the electric vehicle charging demand of multi-unit dwelling residents in the United States

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Early battery electric vehicle (EV) adopters can access home chargers for reliable charging. As the EV market grows, residents of multi-unit dwellings (MUDs) may face barriers in owning EVs and charging them without garage or parking availability. To investigate the mechanisms that can bridge existing disparities in home charging and station deployment, we characterized the travel behavior of MUD residents and estimated their EV residential charging demand. This study classifies the travel patterns of MUD residents by fusing trip diary data from the National Household Travel Survey and housing features from the American Housing Survey. A hierarchical agglomerative clustering method was used to cluster apartment complex residents' travel profiles, considering attributes such as dwell time, daily vehicle miles traveled (VMT), income, and their residences' US census division. We propose a charging decision model to determine the charging station placement demand in MUDs and the charging energy volume expected to be consumed, assuming that MUD drivers universally operate EVs in urban communities. Numerical experiments were conducted to gain insight into the charging demand of MUD residents in the US. We found that charging availability is indispensable for households that set out to meet 80% state of charge by the end of the day. When maintaining a 20% comfortable state of charge the entire day, the higher the VMT are, the greater the share of charging demand and the greater the energy use in MUD chargers. The upper-income group requires a greater share of MUD charging and greater daily kWh charged because of more VMT.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number025012
JournalEnvironmental Research: Infrastructure and Sustainability
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2023


  • charging stations
  • electric vehicle
  • energy use
  • multi-unit dwellings
  • travel patterns

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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