The flavor of dairy products is an important aspect of their overall appeal. Understanding flavor is crucial to effective and strategic research and marketing. Part of understanding flavor involves linking sensory flavor attributes with the volatile chemical components responsible for their occurrence. Establishing these relationships can be challenging and requires the combination of comprehensive sensory descriptive and instrumental analyses. Specific examples of identifying chemical compounds responsible for sensory-perceived flavors (rosy/floral, nutty, mothball/grassy) in Cheddar cheese are presented.