Epistemic odds of contextuality in cyclic systems

Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov, Janne V. Kujala, Víctor H. Cervantes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Beginning with the Bell theorem, cyclic systems of dichotomous random variables have been the object of many foundational findings in quantum mechanics. Here, we ask the question: if one chooses a cyclic system “at random” (uniformly within the hyperbox of all possible systems with given marginals), what are the odds that it will be contextual? We show that the odds of contextuality rapidly tend to zero as the size of the system increases. The result is based on the Contextuality-by-Default theory, in which we do not have to assume that the systems are subject to the no-disturbance/no-signaling constraints.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)937-940
Number of pages4
JournalEuropean Physical Journal: Special Topics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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