Epidemiology of Craniomaxillofacial Fractures Over a 5-year Period at a Midwestern Level 1 Trauma Center Serving a Large Rural Population

Shreya Rangarajan, Ethan W. Chen, Xuan Mai Nguyen, Deepak Lakshmipathy, Knika Sethi, Jonathan Bailey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Though the epidemiology of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) fractures has been well documented at urban hospitals, the characteristics of these fractures in rural hospitals have not been well studied. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to report on the epidemiology of CMF fractures at a regional Level 1 trauma center serving a large rural population in central Illinois. Study Design, Setting, Sample: This is a retrospective cohort study at a community-based regional tertiary referral center that serves a predominantly rural population. Inclusion criteria comprised patients with radiologically confirmed CMF fractures between 2015 and 2019. Patients with incomplete medical records were excluded. Predictor Variable: Predictor variables included demographics (age, admission source, race, and sex) and etiology of CMF fracture (assault/domestic violence, all-terrain vehicle/off-road, falls, farm-related, motor vehicle collisions, gunshot wound, and others). Main Outcome Variable: The primary outcome variable was the CMF anatomic location including nasal bone, orbit, mandible, malar/maxillary, and other CMF fractures. Covariates: The covariates are not applicable. Analyses: Descriptive statistics were used to summarize a sample of the population characteristics. Wilcoxon ranked sign tests and χ2 tests of independence were used to assess for statistically significant associations between select variables of interest. Statistical significance was defined as P < .05. Results: Between 2015 and 2019, a total of 2,334 patients presented to the emergency department with a CMF fracture. After applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final sample was composed of 1,844 patients for the management of 2,405 CMF fractures. The majority of patients were male(62.0%) and young adults (aged 18-39) had the highest number of CMF fractures (819) relative to all other age groups. The most common fracture etiology was fall(37.3%), and nasal bone fractures represented the most common fracture location(41.6%). χ2 analyses revealed statistically significant associations between the anatomic location of CMF fracture incurred, and differing categories of age, admission source, race, sex, and etiology. Conclusion and Relevance: Our study shows that patients seen at our Midwestern Level 1 trauma center are more likely to present with nasal bone and malar/maxillary fractures due to falls. In studies based in urban centers, patients are likely to present with orbital and mandibular fractures due to falls and assault.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)663-670
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2024
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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