Environmental influences on the female reproductive system: Susceptible tissues unique to women

Jamie C. Benedict, Christina Borgeest, Ellen K. Silbergeld, Jodi A. Flaws

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The development of the female reproductive system may be affected by exposure to environmental chemicals known as endocrine disruptors. To date, most studies have focused on the ability of endocrine disruptors to cause infertility, subfecundity, or cancer of the reproductive organs. These studies have used animal models as well as human populations. In contrast, only a few studies have examined potentially more sensitive outcomes of endocrine disruptors on sensitive reproductive tissues in women, including the vagina, uterus, or ovary. Thus, the purposes of this review are to: (1) highlight the importance of studying the effects of chemical exposures including endocrine disruptors, on the vagina, uterus, and ovary in both laboratory animals and women and (2) to provide some examples of endocrine-disrupting chemicals that adversely affect these sensitive tissues in laboratory animals and women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)91-97
Number of pages7
JournalEnvironmental Epidemiology and Toxicology
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - Apr 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Chemical
  • Environment
  • Ovary
  • Uterus
  • Vagina
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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