Entry system options for human return from the moon and mars

Z. R. Putnam, R. D. Braun, R. R. Rohrschneider, J. A. Dec

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Earth-entry system options for human return missions from the moon and Mars were analyzed and compared to identify trends among the configurations and trajectory options and to facilitate informed decision-making at the exploration architecture level. Entry system options included ballistic, lifting capsule, biconic, and lifting body configurations with direct-entry and aerocapture trajectories. For each configuration and trajectory option, the thermal environment, deceleration environment, crossrange and downrange performance, and entry corridor were assessed. In addition, the feasibility of a common vehicle for lunar and Mars return was investigated. The results show that a low lift-to-drag ratio (L/D = 0.3) vehicle provides sufficient performance for both lunar and Mars return missions while providing the following benefits: excellent packaging efficiency, low structural and thermal protection system mass fraction, ease of launch vehicle integration, and system elegance and simplicity. Numerous configuration options exist that achieve this lift-to-drag ratio.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)194-202
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Spacecraft and Rockets
Volume44
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2007
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Moon
natural satellites
entry
mars
Mars
trajectory
Trajectories
drag
Drag
trajectories
configurations
Launch vehicles
Deceleration
Ballistics
vehicles
lifting bodies
aerocapture
downrange
Packaging
thermal protection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Entry system options for human return from the moon and mars. / Putnam, Z. R.; Braun, R. D.; Rohrschneider, R. R.; Dec, J. A.

In: Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 44, No. 1, 01.01.2007, p. 194-202.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Putnam, Z. R. ; Braun, R. D. ; Rohrschneider, R. R. ; Dec, J. A. / Entry system options for human return from the moon and mars. In: Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. 2007 ; Vol. 44, No. 1. pp. 194-202.
@article{f6bd8247d00e478999bad0c1a2286d05,
title = "Entry system options for human return from the moon and mars",
abstract = "Earth-entry system options for human return missions from the moon and Mars were analyzed and compared to identify trends among the configurations and trajectory options and to facilitate informed decision-making at the exploration architecture level. Entry system options included ballistic, lifting capsule, biconic, and lifting body configurations with direct-entry and aerocapture trajectories. For each configuration and trajectory option, the thermal environment, deceleration environment, crossrange and downrange performance, and entry corridor were assessed. In addition, the feasibility of a common vehicle for lunar and Mars return was investigated. The results show that a low lift-to-drag ratio (L/D = 0.3) vehicle provides sufficient performance for both lunar and Mars return missions while providing the following benefits: excellent packaging efficiency, low structural and thermal protection system mass fraction, ease of launch vehicle integration, and system elegance and simplicity. Numerous configuration options exist that achieve this lift-to-drag ratio.",
author = "Putnam, {Z. R.} and Braun, {R. D.} and Rohrschneider, {R. R.} and Dec, {J. A.}",
year = "2007",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.2514/1.20351",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "44",
pages = "194--202",
journal = "Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets",
issn = "0022-4650",
publisher = "American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. (AIAA)",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Entry system options for human return from the moon and mars

AU - Putnam, Z. R.

AU - Braun, R. D.

AU - Rohrschneider, R. R.

AU - Dec, J. A.

PY - 2007/1/1

Y1 - 2007/1/1

N2 - Earth-entry system options for human return missions from the moon and Mars were analyzed and compared to identify trends among the configurations and trajectory options and to facilitate informed decision-making at the exploration architecture level. Entry system options included ballistic, lifting capsule, biconic, and lifting body configurations with direct-entry and aerocapture trajectories. For each configuration and trajectory option, the thermal environment, deceleration environment, crossrange and downrange performance, and entry corridor were assessed. In addition, the feasibility of a common vehicle for lunar and Mars return was investigated. The results show that a low lift-to-drag ratio (L/D = 0.3) vehicle provides sufficient performance for both lunar and Mars return missions while providing the following benefits: excellent packaging efficiency, low structural and thermal protection system mass fraction, ease of launch vehicle integration, and system elegance and simplicity. Numerous configuration options exist that achieve this lift-to-drag ratio.

AB - Earth-entry system options for human return missions from the moon and Mars were analyzed and compared to identify trends among the configurations and trajectory options and to facilitate informed decision-making at the exploration architecture level. Entry system options included ballistic, lifting capsule, biconic, and lifting body configurations with direct-entry and aerocapture trajectories. For each configuration and trajectory option, the thermal environment, deceleration environment, crossrange and downrange performance, and entry corridor were assessed. In addition, the feasibility of a common vehicle for lunar and Mars return was investigated. The results show that a low lift-to-drag ratio (L/D = 0.3) vehicle provides sufficient performance for both lunar and Mars return missions while providing the following benefits: excellent packaging efficiency, low structural and thermal protection system mass fraction, ease of launch vehicle integration, and system elegance and simplicity. Numerous configuration options exist that achieve this lift-to-drag ratio.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33947243034&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33947243034&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.2514/1.20351

DO - 10.2514/1.20351

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:33947243034

VL - 44

SP - 194

EP - 202

JO - Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets

JF - Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets

SN - 0022-4650

IS - 1

ER -