Enterohepatic and non-canonical roles of farnesoid X receptor in controlling lipid and glucose metabolism

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor that transcriptionally regulates bile acid homeostasis along with nutrient metabolism. In addition to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, FXR expression has been widely noted in kidney, adrenal gland, pancreas, adipose, skeletal muscle, heart, and brain. Except for the liver and gut, the relevance of FXR signaling in metabolism in other tissues remains poorly understood. This review examines the classical and non-canonical tissue-specific roles of FXR in regulating, lipids, and glucose homeostasis under normal and diseased states. FXR activation has been reported to be protective against cholestasis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Several ongoing clinical trials are investigating FXR ligands as a therapeutic target for primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and NASH, which substantiate the significance of FXR signaling in modulating metabolic processes. This review highlights that FXR ligands, albeit an attractive therapeutic target for treating metabolic diseases, tissue-specific modulation of FXR may be the key to overcoming some of the adverse clinical effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number111616
JournalMolecular and Cellular Endocrinology
StatePublished - Jun 1 2022


  • Bile acids
  • FXR
  • Glucose homeostasis
  • Lipid metabolism
  • Non-enterohepatic tissues

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Endocrinology


Dive into the research topics of 'Enterohepatic and non-canonical roles of farnesoid X receptor in controlling lipid and glucose metabolism'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this