Enhancement of gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and other health-related metabolites in germinated red rice (Oryza sativa L.) by ultrasonication

Junzhou Ding, Alexander V. Ulanov, Mengyi Dong, Tewu Yang, Boris V. Nemzer, Shanbai Xiong, Siming Zhao, Hao Feng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Red rice (Oryza sativa L.) that has a red (reddish brown) bran layer in de-hulled rice is known to contain rich biofunctional components. Germination is an effective technique to improve the nutritional quality, digestibility, and flavor of de-hulled rice. Ultrasonication, a form of physical stimulation, has been documented as a novel approach to improve the nutritional quality of plant-based food. This study was undertaken to test the use of ultrasound to enhance the nutritional value of red rice. Ultrasonication (5 min, 16 W/L) was applied to rice during soaking or after 66 h germination. Changes of metabolites (amino acids, sugars, and organic acids) in red rice treated by ultrasonication were determined using a GC/MS plant primary metabolomics analysis platform. Differential expressed metabolites were identified through multivariate statistical analysis. Results showed that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and riboflavin (vitamin B2) in red rice significantly increased after germination for 72 h, and then experienced a further increase after treatment by ultrasound at different stages during germination. The metabolomics analysis showed that some plant metabolites, i.e. GABA, O-phosphoethanolamine, and glucose-6-phosphate were significantly increased after the ultrasonic treatment (VIP > 1.5) in comparison with the untreated germinated rice. The findings of this study showed that controlled germination with ultrasonic stress is an effective method to enhance GABA and other health-promoted components in de-hulled rice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)791-797
Number of pages7
JournalUltrasonics Sonochemistry
StatePublished - Jan 2018


  • Germination
  • Metabolites
  • Power ultrasound
  • Red rice
  • Riboflavin
  • γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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