Enhanced A-EFIE with perturbation method

Zhi Guo Qian, Weng Cho Chew

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The recently developed augmented electric field integral equation (A-EFIE) remedies the well-known low-frequency breakdown. However, it loses accuracy of current when applied to certain low-frequency applications like plane wave scattering. This paper addresses the low-frequency inaccuracy problem, and proposes a perturbation method as a remedy. A-EFIE with perturbation solves the same A-EFIE matrix system with updated right hand side vectors repeatedly to obtain the current and charge on different frequency orders as a perturbation series. This method does not require a search for the loop and tree basis, but the loop and tree currents can also be recovered. Numerical experiments validate the novel method.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5498939
Pages (from-to)3256-3264
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Augmented electric field integral equation (A-EFIE)
  • electromagnetic scattering
  • loop-tree
  • low frequency
  • perturbation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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