Energy flow in peasant agriculture ( Japan).

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


It is hypothesized that the Japanese population was near the steady state population during the Tokugawa period (1600 to about 1860) because of an energy resource (land) shortage. This shortage gave rise first to chaos and then peaceful existence under a strict hierarchy which, among other regulations, taxed away more than one-third of the peasant production. The energy flow in Japanese peasant agriculture is modeled and criteria for optimum levels of the population are found under conditions of food taxation. The equations provide a means to verify the hypothesis. -Author

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)737-743
Number of pages7
JournalUnknown Journal
StatePublished - 1981

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Environmental Science
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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