Encapsulation of grape seed extract in polylactide microcapsules for sustained bioactivity and time-dependent release in dental material applications

Mostafa Yourdkhani, Ariene Arcas Leme-Kraus, Berdan Aydin, Ana Karina Bedran-Russo, Scott R. White

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective To sustain the bioactivity of proanthocyanidins-rich plant-derived extracts via encapsulation within biodegradable polymer microcapsules. Methods Polylactide microcapsules containing grape seed extract (GSE) were manufactured using a combination of double emulsion and solvent evaporation techniques. Microcapsule morphology, size distribution, and cross-section were examined via scanning electron microscopy. UV–vis measurements were carried out to evaluate the core loading and encapsulation efficiency of microcapsules. The bioactivity of extracts was evaluated after extraction from capsules via solvent partitioning one week or one year post-encapsulation process. Fifteen human molars were cut into 7 mm × 1.7 mm × 0.5 mm thick mid-coronal dentin beams, demineralized, and treated with either encapsulated GSE, pristine GSE, or left untreated. The elastic modulus of dentin specimens was measured based on three-point bending experiments as an indirect assessment of the bioactivity of grape seed extracts. The effects of the encapsulation process and storage time on the bioactivity of extracts were analyzed. Results Polynuclear microcapsules with average diameter of 1.38 μm and core loading of up to 38 wt% were successfully manufactured. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean fold increase of elastic modulus values among the samples treated with encapsulated or pristine GSE (p = 0.333), or the storage time (one week versus one year storage at room temperature, p = 0.967). Significance Polynuclear microcapsules containing proanthocyanidins-rich plant-derived extracts were prepared. The bioactivity of extracts was preserved after microencapsulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)630-636
Number of pages7
JournalDental Materials
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2017


  • Dentin
  • Microencapsulation
  • Polylactide microcapsules
  • Polynuclear microcapsules
  • Proanthocyanidins
  • Surface biomodification
  • Sustained bioactivity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • General Dentistry
  • Mechanics of Materials


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