Enabling phase quantification of anhydrous cements via Raman imaging

Krishna C. Polavaram, Nishant Garg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The phase composition of Portland cements is typically determined using conventional techniques like X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Rietveld analysis, optical microscopy point counting, and electron microscopy. However, these techniques have several limitations that may affect their accuracy in certain sample-specific scenarios. Here, we report a highly accurate phase quantification of 11 different types of commercial, anhydrous cements using a new and complementary technique: Raman imaging. Specifically, for the 4 principal phases, composition from our extensive data (250,000 Raman spectra per sample, error < 0.71%) and those obtained from XRD Rietveld and supplier data have high coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.98, mean deviation <2%). Additionally, we also quantify 8 secondary phases present in cement clinkers (gypsum, anhydrite, bassanite, syngenite, dolomite, calcite, quartz, and portlandite) with a high degree of confidence, thereby demonstrating that Raman imaging is a highly versatile tool for anhydrous phase quantification in a broad variety of cements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106592
JournalCement and Concrete Research
StatePublished - Dec 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • General Materials Science


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