The weights of a deep neural-network model are optimized in conjunction with the governing flow equations to provide a model for subgrid-scale stresses in a temporally developing plane turbulent jet at Reynolds number Re0=6000. The objective function for training is first based on the instantaneous filtered velocity fields from a corresponding direct numerical simulation, and the training is by a stochastic gradient descent method, which uses the adjoint Navier-Stokes equations to provide the end-to-end sensitivities of the model weights to the velocity fields. In-sample and out-of-sample testing on multiple dual-jet configurations show that its required mesh density in each coordinate direction for prediction of mean flow, Reynolds stresses, and spectra is half that needed by the dynamic Smagorinsky model for comparable accuracy. The same neural-network model trained directly to match filtered subgrid-scale stresses, without the constraint of being embedded within the flow equations during the training, fails to provide a qualitatively correct prediction. The coupled formulation is generalized to train based only on mean-flow and Reynolds stresses, which are more readily available in experiments. The mean-flow training provides a robust model, which is important, though a somewhat less accurate prediction for the same coarse meshes, as might be anticipated due to the reduced information available for training in this case. The anticipated advantage of the formulation is that the inclusion of resolved physics in the training increases its capacity to extrapolate. This is assessed for the case of passive scalar transport, for which it outperforms established models due to improved mixing predictions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computational Mechanics
- Modeling and Simulation
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes