Elevated CO 2 reduces leaf damage by insect herbivores in a forest community

Rachel G. Knepp, Jason G. Hamilton, Jacqueline E. Mohan, Arthur R. Zangerl, May R. Berenbaum, Evan H. DeLucia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


By altering foliage quality, exposure to elevated levels of atmospheric CO 2 potentially affects the amount of herbivore damage experienced by plants. Here, we quantified foliar carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, C : N ratio, phenolic levels, specific leaf area (SLA) and the amount of leaf tissue damaged by chewing insects for 12 hardwood tree species grown in plots exposed to elevated CO 2 (ambient plus 200 μl -1 ) using free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) over 3 yr. The effects of elevated CO 2 varied considerably by year and across species. Elevated CO 2 decreased herbivore damage across 12 species in 1 yr but had no detectable effect in others. Decreased damage may have been related to lower average foliar N concentration and SLA and increased C : N ratio and phenolic content for some species under elevated compared with ambient CO 2 . It remains unclear how these changes in leaf properties affect herbivory. Damage to the leaves of hardwood trees by herbivorous insects may be reduced in the future as the concentration of CO 2 continues to increase, perhaps altering the trophic structure of forest ecosystems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)207-218
Number of pages12
JournalNew Phytologist
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2005


  • Arthropod
  • Carbon content
  • Global change
  • Herbivory
  • Leaf nitrogen
  • Leaf phenolic content
  • Specific leaf area (SLA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Plant Science

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