Elephant natural history: A genomic perspective

Alfred L. Roca, Yasuko Ishida, Adam L. Brandt, Neal R. Benjamin, Kai Zhao, Nicholas J. Georgiadis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We review DNA-based studies of elephants and recently extinct proboscideans. The evidence indicates that little or no nuclear gene flow occurs between African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) and African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis), establishing that they comprise separate species. In all elephant species, males disperse, whereas females remain with their natal social group, leading to discordance in the phylogeography of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA patterns. Improvements in ancient DNA methods have permitted sequences to be generated from an increasing number of proboscidean fossils and have definitively established that the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) is the closest living relative of the extinct woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius). DNA-based methods have been developed to determine the geographic provenance of confiscated ivory in an effort to aid the conservation of elephants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)139-167
Number of pages29
JournalAnnual Review of Animal Biosciences
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015


  • conservation
  • evolution
  • mammoths
  • mitonuclear discordance
  • taxonomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics
  • General Veterinary


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