Electromechanical Coupling in Sn-Rich Solder Interconnects

Q. S. Zhu, H. Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Q. L. Zeng, Z. G. Wang, J. K. Shang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Electromechanical coupling in Sn-based solder interconnects was investigated by examining the effects of the electromigration on the mechanical behavior of microsized Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu, pure Sn and single-crystal Sn solder interconnects. Prior to mechanical loading, electromigration induced grain-boundary grooving, Sn hillock formation, Cu6Sn5 formation, and the wave-like surface relief on the solder surface. The tensile tests following electromigration showed that the strength of the pure Sn and Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu interconnects rapidly decreased with the electromigration time, while the strength of the Sn single-crystal interconnects remained relatively stable. From the stress-relaxation tests, it is shown that the stress-relaxation rate of the Sn-Ag-Cu and pure Sn solder interconnects were enhanced by the electromigration, as the stress-relaxation rate increased with the electromigration time. In the polycrystalline pure Sn, the reduced resistance to deformation was related to the Sn grain tilting or sliding as evident from the grain-boundary grooving. Such a grainboundary effect disappeared in the single-crystal Sn sample. For the Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu solder interconnect, the current-induced softening and the enhanced stress-relaxation rate is explained in terms of the dislocation interaction with excess vacancies produced by electromigration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationLead-free Solders
Subtitle of host publicationMaterials Reliability for Electronics
Number of pages21
ISBN (Electronic)9780470971826
ISBN (Print)9781119966203
StatePublished - Mar 15 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Coble creep
  • Electromechanical coupling
  • Electromigration effects
  • Microsized solder joints
  • Single crystal Sn interconnect
  • Sn 3.5Ag 0.7Cu
  • Stress relaxation behavior
  • Surface grooving

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Materials Science


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