We introduce an intermediate-temperature (350 °C) dry molten sodium hydroxide-mediated binder-free electrodeposition process to grow the previously electrochemically inaccessible air- and moisture-sensitive layered sodium transition metal oxides, NaxMO2(M = Co, Mn, Ni, Fe), in both thin and thick film form, compounds which are conventionally synthesized in powder form by solid-state reactions at temperatures ≥700 °C. As a key motivation for this work, several of these oxides are of interest as cathode materials for emerging sodium-ion-based electrochemical energy storage systems. Despite the low synthesis temperature and short reaction times, our electrodeposited oxides retain the key structural and electrochemical performance observed in high-temperature bulk synthesized materials. We demonstrate that tens of micrometers thick >75%dense NaxCoO2and NaxMnO2can be deposited in under 1 h. When used as cathodes for sodium-ion batteries, these materials exhibit near theoretical gravimetric capacities, chemical diffusion coefficients of Na+ions (~10-12cm2·s-1), and high reversible areal capacities in the range ~0.25 to 0.76 mA·h·cm-2, values significantly higher than those reported for binder-free sodium cathodes deposited by other techniques. The method described here resolves longstanding intrinsic challenges associated with traditional aqueous solution-based electrodeposition of ceramic oxides and opens a general solution chemistry approach for electrochemical processing of hitherto unexplored air- and moisture-sensitive high valent multinary structures with extended frameworks.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Jun 1 2021|
- Secondary battery
- Sodium ion cathode
- Transition metal oxide
ASJC Scopus subject areas