Efforts to quantitatively reduce CfIII → CfII in solution as well as studies of its cyclic voltammetry have been hindered by its scarcity, significant challenges associated with manipulating an unusually intense γemitter, small reaction scales, the need for nonaqueous solvents, and its radiolytic effects on ligands and solvents. In an effort to overcome these impediments, we report on the stabilization of CfII by encapsulation in 2.2.2-cryptand and comparisons with the readily reducible lanthanides, Sm3+, Eu3+, and Yb3+. Cyclic voltammetry measurements suggest that CfIII/II displays electrochemical behavior with characteristics of both SmIII/II and YbIII/II. The °E1/2 values of -1.525 and -1.660 V (vs Fc/Fc+ in tetrahydrofuran (THF)) for [Cf(2.2.2-crypt)]3+/2+ and [Sm(2.2.2-crypt)]3+/2+, respectively, are similar. However, the ΔE values upon complexation by 2.2.2-cryptand for CfIII/II more closely parallels YbIII/II with postencapsulation shifts of 705 and 715 mV, respectively, whereas the shift of SmIII/II (520 mV) mirrors that of EuIII/II (524 mV). This suggests more structural similarities between CfII and YbII in solution than with SmII that likely originates from more similar ionic radii and local coordination environments, a supposition that is corroborated by crystallographic and extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements from other systems. Competitive-ion binding experiments between EuIII/II, SmIII/II, and YbIII/II were also performed and show less favorable binding by YbIII/II. Connectivity structures of [Ln(2.2.2-cryptand)(THF)][BPh4]2 (Ln = EuII, SmII) are reported to show the important role that THF plays in these redox reactions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry