Electrochemical generation of birnessite MnO2 nanoflowers for intercalation of Mg2+ ions

Cheng Zhang, Xun Zhan, Talha Al-Zoubi, Yanling Ma, Pei Chieh Shih, Fangfang Wang, Wenxiang Chen, Saran Pidaparthy, Ryan M. Stephens, Qian Chen, Jian Min Zuo, Hong Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Rechargeable multivalent ion battery such as Mg-ion battery is considered as a candidate for high-density battery technology because of its high volumetric capacity and low tendency to form dendrites. Development of cathode materials for Mg-ion batteries requires good understanding of the intercalation and adsorption processes of Mg2+ ions into and on the host materials. We observed recently that nanostructure is beneficial for the development of Mg2+ cathode materials with high capacity. In this work, we describe the preparation of flower-like three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures of birnessite MnO2 through an electrochemical conversion reaction from γ-MnS. This 3D birnessite MnO2 exhibited a total capacity of ~360 mAh/g in aqueous electrolyte for the initial cycle. We further characterized the insertion of Mg2+ ions in the atomic layers of MnO2 nanoflowers using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) technique, revealing the energy storage mechanism of Mg2+ ions in 3D, ion-accessible MnO2 nanostructures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number107696
JournalNano Energy
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • Aqueous battery
  • Birnessite
  • In-situ conversion
  • Intercalation
  • Mg-ion insertion
  • MnO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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