Efficient reclaiming in reservation-based real-time systems with variable execution times

Marco Caccamo, Giorgio C. Buttazzo, Deepu C. Thomas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, we present a general CPU scheduling methodology for managing overruns in a real-time environment, where tasks may have different criticality, flexible timing constraints, shared resources, and variable execution times. The proposed method enhances the Constant Bandwidth Server (CBS) by providing two important extensions. First, it includes an efficient bandwidth sharing mechanism that reclaims the unused bandwidth to enhance task responsiveness. It is proven that the reclaiming mechanism does not violate the isolation property of the CBS and can be safely adopted to achieve temporal protection even when resource reservations are not precisely assigned. Second, the proposed method allows the CBS to work in the presence of shared resources. The enhancements achieved by the proposed approach turned out to be very effective with respect to classical CPU reservation schemes. The algorithm complexity is O(lnN), where N is the number of real-time tasks in the system, and its performance has been experimentally evaluated by extensive simulations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)198-213
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computers
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Overload control
  • Overrun management
  • Resource reclaiming
  • Variable execution times

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


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