Effects of traditional vs. iPad-enhanced aerobic exercise on wayfinding efficacy and cognition: A pilot randomized controlled trial

Daniel Palac, Tiffany Bullard, Jason D. Cohen, Lydia T. Nguyen, Raksha A. Mudar, Sean P. Mullen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and efficacy of an iPad-enhanced aerobic exercise intervention designed to enhance wayfinding efficacy and performance and relevant cognitive functioning among middle-aged adults at risk for cognitive impairment. Twenty-seven low active adults (21 females) aged 45 to 62 years (51.22 ± 5.20) participated in a ten-week randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized to an iPad-enhanced aerobic exercise group (experimental group) or an aerobic exercise-only group (control group) following baseline assessment. Both groups exercised at 50% to 75% of age-predicted heart rate maximum for 30 to 50 min/d, 2 d/wk for 10 weeks. During aerobic exercise, the experimental group engaged in virtual tours delivered via iPad. Baseline and post-intervention assessments of wayfinding self-efficacy, wayfinding task performance, cognitive functioning, electroencephalogram (EEG), and psychosocial questionnaires were administered. The results suggest that ten weeks of iPad-enhanced, moderately intense aerobic exercise had specific effects on wayfinding self-efficacy; however, no statistical differences were found between groups on the behavioral wayfinding task or spatial memory performance at follow-up. Performance scores on an inhibitory attentional-control cognitive assessment revealed significant differences between groups, favoring the experimental group (p < 0.05). Virtual reality-enhanced aerobic exercise may prove to be an effective method for improving cognitive function and increasing confidence to navigate real-world scenarios among individuals at risk of cognitive impairment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3495
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number18
StatePublished - 2019


  • Cognitive function
  • Life-space use
  • MHealth
  • Physical activity
  • Self-efficacy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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