Effects of S-nitrosation of nitric oxide synthase

Douglas A. Mitchell, Thomas Michel, Michael A. Marletta

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Nitric oxide (NO) is a key mammalian signaling molecule that affects numerous physiological processes. Mammals possess three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS): endothelial (eNOS), neuronal (nNOS), and inducible (iNOS). These isoforms differ in their tissue distribution, cellular location, regulation, and NO output. NO synthesized by eNOS and nNOS acts in a paracrine fashion, whereby NO generated in one cell acts upon an adjacent cell by binding to and activating soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Activation of sGC by NO leads to a several hundredfold enhancement of cyclic guanidine monophosphate (cGMP) synthesis. Notable outcomes of elevated cGMP levels are neurotransmission and smooth muscle relaxation. iNOS is capable of synthesizing much higher steady-state levels of NO, and the toxicity of NO is harnessed as part of the innate immune response. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that NO targets proteins other than sGC. S-nitrosation is an example of nonclassical NO signaling, defined as sGC/cGMP-independent, and has garnered attention with regard to the regulation of NOS activity both in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this review is to cover what is currently known about the S-nitrosation of NOS isoforms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationNitric Oxide
ISBN (Print)9780444531193
StatePublished - Jan 1 2007
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Biology
ISSN (Print)1872-2423


  • NOS
  • S-nitrosation
  • S-nitrosylation
  • biotin switch
  • endothelial NOS
  • inducible NOS
  • neuronal NOS.
  • nitric oxide
  • nitric oxide synthase
  • nitrosothiol relay
  • posttranslational modifications
  • signal transduction
  • specificity of nitrosation
  • transnitrosation
  • zinc tetrathiolate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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  • Cite this

    Mitchell, D. A., Michel, T., & Marletta, M. A. (2007). Effects of S-nitrosation of nitric oxide synthase. In Nitric Oxide (pp. 151-179,456). (Advances in Experimental Biology; Vol. 1). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-2423(07)01007-1