Effects of protein and fat concentration in coproduct-based growing calf diets on adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, blood metabolites, and carcass composition

J. R. Segers, Juan J Loor, S. J. Moisá, D. Gonzalez, Daniel William Shike

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Crossbred calves (n = 30; age = 95 ± 1.7 d; BW = 179 ± 18 kg) were fed 1 of 5 growing diets: 1) corn-based control, 2) low-fat, low-protein coproduct blend, 3) high-fat, low-protein coproduct blend, 4) low-fat, high-protein coproduct blend, and 5) high-fat, high-protein coproduct blend for 112 d (growing phase) followed by a common corn-based finishing diet (additional 112 d; finishing phase). Calves were biopsied at 0, 112, and 224 d for transcriptional analysis via real-time quantitative PCR of 14 genes associated with adipogenesis and lipogenesis within the muscle. Serum was collected at d 0, 112, and 224 and analyzed for leptin, IGF-1, and GH concentration. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedures of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) to ascertain the effects of 2 protein levels, 2 fat levels, time, and any interactions. Increased protein and decreased fat in the growing diet resulted in a carryover effect that increased (P < 0.01) gene expression of PPARγ, insulin-induced gene 1, thyroid hormone responsive SPOT14 protein, ATP citrate lyase, adiponectin, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase homologue 2, fatty acid binding protein 4, fatty acid synthase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase as well as serum leptin concentrations between d 112 and 224. Expression of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 was increased (P < 0.01) at d 112 in steers fed high-protein, high-fat diets compared to those fed high-protein, low-fat diets. A fat × day interaction (P < 0.01) occurred for the expression of adiponectin receptor 2 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, resulting in a carryover effect wherein low-fat diets fed during the growing phase increased expression of both genes at the end of the finishing phase (d 224). After slaughter, cattle fed the control during the growing phase tended (P = 0.09) to have greater marbling scores, whereas other carcass parameters were not different (P ≥ 0.13). These data indicate that feeding differing levels of dietary fat and protein during the growing phase does affect i.m. adipogenesis at the transcriptional level, but differences in gene expression were not sufficient to affect carcass quality among cattle fed coproducts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2767-2781
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of animal science
Volume95
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Fingerprint

coproducts
carcass composition
Fats
calves
metabolites
Diet
Gene Expression
gene expression
blood
lipids
diet
blended foods
Proteins
proteins
finishing
Adipogenesis
Fat-Restricted Diet
low fat diet
cattle feeds
Leptin

Keywords

  • Beef calves
  • Early weaning
  • Marbling regulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

Cite this

@article{1b05dae92ccd4ee08816d4b0a5254a37,
title = "Effects of protein and fat concentration in coproduct-based growing calf diets on adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, blood metabolites, and carcass composition",
abstract = "Crossbred calves (n = 30; age = 95 ± 1.7 d; BW = 179 ± 18 kg) were fed 1 of 5 growing diets: 1) corn-based control, 2) low-fat, low-protein coproduct blend, 3) high-fat, low-protein coproduct blend, 4) low-fat, high-protein coproduct blend, and 5) high-fat, high-protein coproduct blend for 112 d (growing phase) followed by a common corn-based finishing diet (additional 112 d; finishing phase). Calves were biopsied at 0, 112, and 224 d for transcriptional analysis via real-time quantitative PCR of 14 genes associated with adipogenesis and lipogenesis within the muscle. Serum was collected at d 0, 112, and 224 and analyzed for leptin, IGF-1, and GH concentration. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedures of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) to ascertain the effects of 2 protein levels, 2 fat levels, time, and any interactions. Increased protein and decreased fat in the growing diet resulted in a carryover effect that increased (P < 0.01) gene expression of PPARγ, insulin-induced gene 1, thyroid hormone responsive SPOT14 protein, ATP citrate lyase, adiponectin, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase homologue 2, fatty acid binding protein 4, fatty acid synthase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase as well as serum leptin concentrations between d 112 and 224. Expression of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 was increased (P < 0.01) at d 112 in steers fed high-protein, high-fat diets compared to those fed high-protein, low-fat diets. A fat × day interaction (P < 0.01) occurred for the expression of adiponectin receptor 2 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, resulting in a carryover effect wherein low-fat diets fed during the growing phase increased expression of both genes at the end of the finishing phase (d 224). After slaughter, cattle fed the control during the growing phase tended (P = 0.09) to have greater marbling scores, whereas other carcass parameters were not different (P ≥ 0.13). These data indicate that feeding differing levels of dietary fat and protein during the growing phase does affect i.m. adipogenesis at the transcriptional level, but differences in gene expression were not sufficient to affect carcass quality among cattle fed coproducts.",
keywords = "Beef calves, Early weaning, Marbling regulation",
author = "Segers, {J. R.} and Loor, {Juan J} and Mois{\'a}, {S. J.} and D. Gonzalez and Shike, {Daniel William}",
year = "2017",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of protein and fat concentration in coproduct-based growing calf diets on adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, blood metabolites, and carcass composition

AU - Segers, J. R.

AU - Loor, Juan J

AU - Moisá, S. J.

AU - Gonzalez, D.

AU - Shike, Daniel William

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - Crossbred calves (n = 30; age = 95 ± 1.7 d; BW = 179 ± 18 kg) were fed 1 of 5 growing diets: 1) corn-based control, 2) low-fat, low-protein coproduct blend, 3) high-fat, low-protein coproduct blend, 4) low-fat, high-protein coproduct blend, and 5) high-fat, high-protein coproduct blend for 112 d (growing phase) followed by a common corn-based finishing diet (additional 112 d; finishing phase). Calves were biopsied at 0, 112, and 224 d for transcriptional analysis via real-time quantitative PCR of 14 genes associated with adipogenesis and lipogenesis within the muscle. Serum was collected at d 0, 112, and 224 and analyzed for leptin, IGF-1, and GH concentration. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedures of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) to ascertain the effects of 2 protein levels, 2 fat levels, time, and any interactions. Increased protein and decreased fat in the growing diet resulted in a carryover effect that increased (P < 0.01) gene expression of PPARγ, insulin-induced gene 1, thyroid hormone responsive SPOT14 protein, ATP citrate lyase, adiponectin, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase homologue 2, fatty acid binding protein 4, fatty acid synthase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase as well as serum leptin concentrations between d 112 and 224. Expression of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 was increased (P < 0.01) at d 112 in steers fed high-protein, high-fat diets compared to those fed high-protein, low-fat diets. A fat × day interaction (P < 0.01) occurred for the expression of adiponectin receptor 2 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, resulting in a carryover effect wherein low-fat diets fed during the growing phase increased expression of both genes at the end of the finishing phase (d 224). After slaughter, cattle fed the control during the growing phase tended (P = 0.09) to have greater marbling scores, whereas other carcass parameters were not different (P ≥ 0.13). These data indicate that feeding differing levels of dietary fat and protein during the growing phase does affect i.m. adipogenesis at the transcriptional level, but differences in gene expression were not sufficient to affect carcass quality among cattle fed coproducts.

AB - Crossbred calves (n = 30; age = 95 ± 1.7 d; BW = 179 ± 18 kg) were fed 1 of 5 growing diets: 1) corn-based control, 2) low-fat, low-protein coproduct blend, 3) high-fat, low-protein coproduct blend, 4) low-fat, high-protein coproduct blend, and 5) high-fat, high-protein coproduct blend for 112 d (growing phase) followed by a common corn-based finishing diet (additional 112 d; finishing phase). Calves were biopsied at 0, 112, and 224 d for transcriptional analysis via real-time quantitative PCR of 14 genes associated with adipogenesis and lipogenesis within the muscle. Serum was collected at d 0, 112, and 224 and analyzed for leptin, IGF-1, and GH concentration. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedures of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) to ascertain the effects of 2 protein levels, 2 fat levels, time, and any interactions. Increased protein and decreased fat in the growing diet resulted in a carryover effect that increased (P < 0.01) gene expression of PPARγ, insulin-induced gene 1, thyroid hormone responsive SPOT14 protein, ATP citrate lyase, adiponectin, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase homologue 2, fatty acid binding protein 4, fatty acid synthase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase as well as serum leptin concentrations between d 112 and 224. Expression of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 was increased (P < 0.01) at d 112 in steers fed high-protein, high-fat diets compared to those fed high-protein, low-fat diets. A fat × day interaction (P < 0.01) occurred for the expression of adiponectin receptor 2 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, resulting in a carryover effect wherein low-fat diets fed during the growing phase increased expression of both genes at the end of the finishing phase (d 224). After slaughter, cattle fed the control during the growing phase tended (P = 0.09) to have greater marbling scores, whereas other carcass parameters were not different (P ≥ 0.13). These data indicate that feeding differing levels of dietary fat and protein during the growing phase does affect i.m. adipogenesis at the transcriptional level, but differences in gene expression were not sufficient to affect carcass quality among cattle fed coproducts.

KW - Beef calves

KW - Early weaning

KW - Marbling regulation

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