Water disinfection can generate water disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Iodoacetic acid (IAA) is one DBP, and it has been shown to be an ovarian toxicant in vitro and in vivo. However, it is unknown if prenatal and lactational exposure to IAA affects reproductive outcomes in female offspring. This study tested the hypothesis that prenatal and lactational exposure to IAA adversely affects reproductive parameters in F1 female offspring. Adult female CD-1 mice were dosed with water (control) or IAA (10, 100, and 500 mg/L) in the drinking water for 35 days and then mated with unexposed males. IAA exposure continued throughout gestation. Dams delivered naturally, and pups were continuously exposed to IAA through lactation until postnatal day (PND) 21. Female pups were euthanized on PND 21 and subjected to measurements of anogenital distance, ovarian weight, and vaginal opening. Ovaries were subjected to histological analysis. In addition, sera were collected to measure reproductive hormone levels. IAA exposure decreased vaginal opening rate, increased the absolute weight of the ovaries, increased anogenital index, and decreased the percentage of atretic follicles in female pups compared to control. IAA exposure caused a borderline decrease in the levels of progesterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and increased levels of testosterone in female pups compared to control. Collectively, these data show that prenatal and lactational exposure to IAA in drinking water affects vaginal opening, anogenital index, the weight of the ovaries, the percentage of atretic follicles, and hormone levels in the F1 generation in mice.
- Disinfection byproducts
- endocrine-disrupting chemicals
- iodoacetic acid
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Reproductive Medicine