Effects of oxygen and isoflurane anesthesia on hemolymph gas analysis and righting reflex of asian forest (heterometrus longimanus) and dictator scorpions (pandinus dictator)

Julie D. Sheldon, Laura Adamovicz, Peter Burvenich, Sathya K. Chinnadurai, Matthew C Allender

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Large arachnids are commonly managed under professional care, and anesthesia is occasionally required for physical examination and diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Anesthetic responses and hemolymph gas analysis have been studied previously in spiders, but scorpions have yet to be investigated. This study measured hemolymph gas values with an i-STAT point of care blood gas analyzer in healthy adult Asian forest scorpions (Heterometrus longimanus = HL, n = 8) and dictator scorpions (Pandinus dictator = PD, n = 12) breathing: 1) room air (RA), 2) 100% oxygen for 10 min in a chamber (OX), and 3) 5% isoflurane and oxygen (ISO) in a chamber until induction or loss of righting reflex. All scorpions recovered without complications, and there were no cartridge failures. Analysis of hemolymph gas values revealed that pH was lower in OX compared with RA and ISO and was lower in PD compared with HL scorpions. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide did not differ between inhaled gases but was higher in PD compared with HL. The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) was higher in ISO compared with OX, and both were higher than when breathing RA. Despite a lack of species difference in pO2, PD had a more dramatic increase in pO2 in ISO compared with HL (significant species and inhalant interaction). PD had a significantly shorter induction time than HL, but recovery time (return of righting reflex) did not differ between species. Subjectively, HL exhibited rough inductions compared with PD, characterized by violent whole-body and tail movements. The unexpected increase in pO2 in ISO compared with OX, along with the species-specific differences and anesthetic effects, emphasizes the unique respiratory physiology of scorpions and demonstrates that further species-specific studies of anesthetics are warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)111-122
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume50
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019

Fingerprint

Pandinus
Heterometrus
Righting Reflex
Scorpions
Hemolymph
Scorpiones
Isoflurane
isoflurane
reflexes
hemolymph
anesthesia
Anesthesia
Gases
gases
Oxygen
oxygen
anesthetics
Anesthetics
Partial Pressure
Air

Keywords

  • Asian forest scorpion
  • Dictator scorpion
  • Hemolymph
  • Heterometrus longimanus
  • Isoflurane
  • Pandinus dictator

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Effects of oxygen and isoflurane anesthesia on hemolymph gas analysis and righting reflex of asian forest (heterometrus longimanus) and dictator scorpions (pandinus dictator). / Sheldon, Julie D.; Adamovicz, Laura; Burvenich, Peter; Chinnadurai, Sathya K.; Allender, Matthew C.

In: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Vol. 50, No. 1, 01.03.2019, p. 111-122.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Large arachnids are commonly managed under professional care, and anesthesia is occasionally required for physical examination and diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Anesthetic responses and hemolymph gas analysis have been studied previously in spiders, but scorpions have yet to be investigated. This study measured hemolymph gas values with an i-STAT point of care blood gas analyzer in healthy adult Asian forest scorpions (Heterometrus longimanus = HL, n = 8) and dictator scorpions (Pandinus dictator = PD, n = 12) breathing: 1) room air (RA), 2) 100{\%} oxygen for 10 min in a chamber (OX), and 3) 5{\%} isoflurane and oxygen (ISO) in a chamber until induction or loss of righting reflex. All scorpions recovered without complications, and there were no cartridge failures. Analysis of hemolymph gas values revealed that pH was lower in OX compared with RA and ISO and was lower in PD compared with HL scorpions. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide did not differ between inhaled gases but was higher in PD compared with HL. The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) was higher in ISO compared with OX, and both were higher than when breathing RA. Despite a lack of species difference in pO2, PD had a more dramatic increase in pO2 in ISO compared with HL (significant species and inhalant interaction). PD had a significantly shorter induction time than HL, but recovery time (return of righting reflex) did not differ between species. Subjectively, HL exhibited rough inductions compared with PD, characterized by violent whole-body and tail movements. The unexpected increase in pO2 in ISO compared with OX, along with the species-specific differences and anesthetic effects, emphasizes the unique respiratory physiology of scorpions and demonstrates that further species-specific studies of anesthetics are warranted.",
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