Effects of low dietary cation-anion difference induced by ruminal ammonium chloride infusion on performance, serum, and urine metabolites of lactating dairy cows

Kun Wang, Xuemei Nan, Puyi Zhao, Wei Liu, James K. Drackley, Shijie Liu, Kaizhan Zhang, Dengpan Bu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine ammonium chloride tolerance of lactating dairy cows, by examining effects of negative dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) induced by ruminal ammonium chloride infusion on performance, serum and urine minerals, serum metabolites and enzymes of lactating dairy cows. Methods: Four primiparous lactating Chinese Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were infused with increasing amounts (0, 150, 300, or 450 g/d) of ammonium chloride in a crossover design. The DCAD of the base diet was 279 mEq/kg dry matter (DM) using the DCAD formula (Na + K − Cl − S)/kg of DM. Ammonium chloride infusion added the equivalent of 0, 128, 330, and 536 mEq/kg DM of Cl in treatments. According to the different dry matter intakes (DMI), the resulting actual DCAD of the four treatments was 279, 151, –51, and –257 mEq/kg DM, respectively. Results: DMI decreased linearly as DCAD decreased. Yields of milk, 4% fatcorrected milk, energycorrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein decreased linearly as DCAD decreased. Concentrations of milk protein and milk urea nitrogen increased linearly with decreasing DCAD. Concentration of Cl– in serum increased linearly and concentration of PO43 in serum increased quadratically as DCAD decreased. Urine pH decreased linearly and calculated urine volume increased linearly with decreasing DCAD. Linear increases in daily urinary excretion of Cl, Ca2+, PO43−, urea N, and ammonium were observed as DCAD decreased. Activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and γglutamyl transferase in serum and urea N concentration in serum increased linearly as DCAD decreased. Conclusion: In conclusion, negative DCAD induced by ruminal ammonium chloride infusion resulted in a metabolic acidosis, had a negative influence on performance, and increased serum enzymes indicating potential liver and kidney damage in lactating dairy cows. Daily ammonium chloride intake by lactating dairy cows should not exceed 300 g, and 150 g/d per cow may be better.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)677-685
Number of pages9
JournalAsian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Volume31
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2018

Fingerprint

dietary cation anion difference
Ammonium Chloride
ammonium chloride
Dairies
Metabolites
Anions
Cations
Negative ions
urine
dairy cows
Positive ions
Urine
metabolites
Serum
Milk
Urea
Milk Proteins
dairy protein
milk
dry matter intake

Keywords

  • Ammonium Chloride
  • Dietary Cation Anion Difference
  • Lactating Dairy Cow
  • Serum
  • Urine Metabolites

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Engineering(all)

Cite this

Effects of low dietary cation-anion difference induced by ruminal ammonium chloride infusion on performance, serum, and urine metabolites of lactating dairy cows. / Wang, Kun; Nan, Xuemei; Zhao, Puyi; Liu, Wei; Drackley, James K.; Liu, Shijie; Zhang, Kaizhan; Bu, Dengpan.

In: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 5, 05.2018, p. 677-685.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine ammonium chloride tolerance of lactating dairy cows, by examining effects of negative dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) induced by ruminal ammonium chloride infusion on performance, serum and urine minerals, serum metabolites and enzymes of lactating dairy cows. Methods: Four primiparous lactating Chinese Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were infused with increasing amounts (0, 150, 300, or 450 g/d) of ammonium chloride in a crossover design. The DCAD of the base diet was 279 mEq/kg dry matter (DM) using the DCAD formula (Na + K − Cl − S)/kg of DM. Ammonium chloride infusion added the equivalent of 0, 128, 330, and 536 mEq/kg DM of Cl in treatments. According to the different dry matter intakes (DMI), the resulting actual DCAD of the four treatments was 279, 151, –51, and –257 mEq/kg DM, respectively. Results: DMI decreased linearly as DCAD decreased. Yields of milk, 4{\%} fatcorrected milk, energycorrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein decreased linearly as DCAD decreased. Concentrations of milk protein and milk urea nitrogen increased linearly with decreasing DCAD. Concentration of Cl– in serum increased linearly and concentration of PO43 in serum increased quadratically as DCAD decreased. Urine pH decreased linearly and calculated urine volume increased linearly with decreasing DCAD. Linear increases in daily urinary excretion of Cl−, Ca2+, PO43−, urea N, and ammonium were observed as DCAD decreased. Activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and γglutamyl transferase in serum and urea N concentration in serum increased linearly as DCAD decreased. Conclusion: In conclusion, negative DCAD induced by ruminal ammonium chloride infusion resulted in a metabolic acidosis, had a negative influence on performance, and increased serum enzymes indicating potential liver and kidney damage in lactating dairy cows. Daily ammonium chloride intake by lactating dairy cows should not exceed 300 g, and 150 g/d per cow may be better.",
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AU - Nan, Xuemei

AU - Zhao, Puyi

AU - Liu, Wei

AU - Drackley, James K.

AU - Liu, Shijie

AU - Zhang, Kaizhan

AU - Bu, Dengpan

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N2 - Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine ammonium chloride tolerance of lactating dairy cows, by examining effects of negative dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) induced by ruminal ammonium chloride infusion on performance, serum and urine minerals, serum metabolites and enzymes of lactating dairy cows. Methods: Four primiparous lactating Chinese Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were infused with increasing amounts (0, 150, 300, or 450 g/d) of ammonium chloride in a crossover design. The DCAD of the base diet was 279 mEq/kg dry matter (DM) using the DCAD formula (Na + K − Cl − S)/kg of DM. Ammonium chloride infusion added the equivalent of 0, 128, 330, and 536 mEq/kg DM of Cl in treatments. According to the different dry matter intakes (DMI), the resulting actual DCAD of the four treatments was 279, 151, –51, and –257 mEq/kg DM, respectively. Results: DMI decreased linearly as DCAD decreased. Yields of milk, 4% fatcorrected milk, energycorrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein decreased linearly as DCAD decreased. Concentrations of milk protein and milk urea nitrogen increased linearly with decreasing DCAD. Concentration of Cl– in serum increased linearly and concentration of PO43 in serum increased quadratically as DCAD decreased. Urine pH decreased linearly and calculated urine volume increased linearly with decreasing DCAD. Linear increases in daily urinary excretion of Cl−, Ca2+, PO43−, urea N, and ammonium were observed as DCAD decreased. Activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and γglutamyl transferase in serum and urea N concentration in serum increased linearly as DCAD decreased. Conclusion: In conclusion, negative DCAD induced by ruminal ammonium chloride infusion resulted in a metabolic acidosis, had a negative influence on performance, and increased serum enzymes indicating potential liver and kidney damage in lactating dairy cows. Daily ammonium chloride intake by lactating dairy cows should not exceed 300 g, and 150 g/d per cow may be better.

AB - Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine ammonium chloride tolerance of lactating dairy cows, by examining effects of negative dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) induced by ruminal ammonium chloride infusion on performance, serum and urine minerals, serum metabolites and enzymes of lactating dairy cows. Methods: Four primiparous lactating Chinese Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were infused with increasing amounts (0, 150, 300, or 450 g/d) of ammonium chloride in a crossover design. The DCAD of the base diet was 279 mEq/kg dry matter (DM) using the DCAD formula (Na + K − Cl − S)/kg of DM. Ammonium chloride infusion added the equivalent of 0, 128, 330, and 536 mEq/kg DM of Cl in treatments. According to the different dry matter intakes (DMI), the resulting actual DCAD of the four treatments was 279, 151, –51, and –257 mEq/kg DM, respectively. Results: DMI decreased linearly as DCAD decreased. Yields of milk, 4% fatcorrected milk, energycorrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein decreased linearly as DCAD decreased. Concentrations of milk protein and milk urea nitrogen increased linearly with decreasing DCAD. Concentration of Cl– in serum increased linearly and concentration of PO43 in serum increased quadratically as DCAD decreased. Urine pH decreased linearly and calculated urine volume increased linearly with decreasing DCAD. Linear increases in daily urinary excretion of Cl−, Ca2+, PO43−, urea N, and ammonium were observed as DCAD decreased. Activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and γglutamyl transferase in serum and urea N concentration in serum increased linearly as DCAD decreased. Conclusion: In conclusion, negative DCAD induced by ruminal ammonium chloride infusion resulted in a metabolic acidosis, had a negative influence on performance, and increased serum enzymes indicating potential liver and kidney damage in lactating dairy cows. Daily ammonium chloride intake by lactating dairy cows should not exceed 300 g, and 150 g/d per cow may be better.

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KW - Urine Metabolites

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