Hydrolysis is the major pathway for fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) degradation in water and soil, yet the process is not well understood. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various environmental factors on the rate of 1,3-D hydrolysis. Cis-, trans-1,3-D and their isomeric mixture were spiked into water and Arlington soil (coarse-loamy, mixed, thermic Haplic Durixeralfs) and incubated under different conditions. The rate of 1,3-D hydrolysis in water and soil were evaluated based on its residual amount and Cl- release, respectively. 1,3-D hydrolyzed rapidly in deionized water, with a half-life of 9.8 d at 20°C. The hydrolysis was pH dependent, with low pH inhibiting and high pH favoring the reaction. Other factors such as isomeric differences, photo irradiation, suspended particles, and small amounts of co-solutes had little effect on the reaction. In soil, 1,3-D hydrolyzed following pseudo first-order kinetics. The hydrolysis rate constant increased with soil moisture content and decreased with the initial 1,3-D concentration. At 20°C, > 60% of the 1,3-D applied at < 0.61 g kg-1 in 10% moisturized soil hydrolyzed within 30 d. The soil particle size and mineralogy had little effect on the reaction rate. Organic matter promoted 1, 3-D degradation via direct substitution reactions, and the trans-isomer showed preference over the cis- to react with certain organic molecules. Microbial contributions were initially insignificant, and became important as soil microorganisms adapted to the fumigant. The results suggest that to accelerate 1,3-D degradation, pH, soil moisture, and organic amendment should be considered.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Water Science and Technology
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law