Effects of Consumers' Efforts on Price and Promotion Fairness Perceptions

Lan Xia, Monika Kukar-Kinney, Kent B. Monroe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This research examines how consumers' efforts as a nonmonetary sacrifice influence their price and promotion fairness perceptions in the context of price promotions. Multiple studies using different price promotion tactics demonstrate that consumers' perceived level of effort to obtain a reduced price negatively influences their fairness perceptions when they deny the promoted price. Exploring the underlying mechanisms of this effect, we show that the amount of effort consumers exert to obtain a promoted price leads to their feeling of deservingness and entitlement. When the promoted price is denied, this feeling of entitlement is violated, causing unfairness perceptions to occur. The research demonstrates that, in addition to retailers' actions such as price changes, consumers' actions, in the form of their effort input, are also an important determinant of fairness perceptions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Retailing
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2010


  • Fairness perception
  • Nonmonetary sacrifice
  • Price promotion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Marketing


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