Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs

F. N. Almeida, J. K. Htoo, J. Thomson, H. H. Stein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (P<0.05) for pigs fed Diet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2, but no differences were observed for G : F among pigs fed diets containing autoclaved DDGS. Results demonstrate that the negative effects of heat damage of SBM or DDGS may be ameliorated if the reduced concentration and digestibility of amino acids in heat-damaged SBM or DDGS is taken into account in diet formulation. Further research is needed to improve the prediction of the ileal digestibility of amino acids in heat-processed ingredients used in practical diet formulations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1594-1602
Number of pages9
JournalAnimal
Volume8
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 20 2014

Keywords

  • Maillard reactions
  • distillers dried grains with solubles
  • heat damage
  • soybean meal
  • weaned pigs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology

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