Soy protein and corn meal are widely used as main ingredients in the cereal and snack industries. We studied the effect of extrusion processing on the immunoreactivity of proteins in soy protein isolate-corn meal (SPI-corn) blends and soy flour-corn meal (SF-corn) blends using a full-factorial design with two levels of temperature, moisture, and screw speed (SS). The changes in protein solubility, protein secondary structure and physical properties, such as the expansion ratio, specific volume, water hydration capacity (WHC), texture, and color, were also studied. The western blotting results illustrated that extrusion processing decreased the immunoreactivity of proteins in SPI-corn and SF-corn blends and eliminated certain allergenic proteins in SF-corn extrudates. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results indicated that different extrusion conditions decreased the immunoreactivities of SPI-corn and SF-corn blends in the ranges of 53%–68% and 80%–86%, respectively, compared with the raw material. The protein solubility decreased after extrusion by >58.7% for SPI-corn extrudates and by 66.3% for SF-corn extrudates compared with the initial materials and decreased significantly for both SPI-corn and SF-corn extrudates with the increase in extrusion temperature (P < 0.05). The α-helix structure decreased and β-strand structure increased after extrusion for both SPI-corn and SF-corn blends. Higher moisture significantly decreased the expansion ratio, specific volume and WHC of SPI-corn and SF-corn extrudates, as well as increased the energy required to cut the samples. Thus, the effect of extrusion on allergenic proteins using the human plasma of subjects allergic to soybean and corn showed that moisture had a clear effect on their reduction. Product treated with low moisture (20%), regardless of the starting material used, was the most effective based on the reduction of allergenic proteins.
- Soy flour
- Soy protein isolate
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering