Effect of fluid concentration in titanium machining with an atomization-based cutting fluid (ACF) spray system

Chandra Nath, Shiv G. Kapoor, Anil K. Srivastava, Jon Iverson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of metal-working fluid (MWF) concentration on the machining responses including tool life and wear, cutting force, friction coefficient, chip morphology, and surface roughness during the machining of titanium with the use of the ACF spray system. Five different concentrations from 5 to 15% of a water-soluble metalworking fluid (MWF) were applied during turning of a titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V. The thermo-physical properties such as viscosity, surface tension and thermal conductivity of these concentrations were also measured. The test results demonstrate that the tool life first extends with the increase in MWF concentration and then drops with further increase. At low concentration (e.g., 5%), a lack of the lubrication effect causes to increase in a higher friction at the tool-chip interface resulting in severe chipping and tool nose/flank wear within a short machining time. On the other hand, at high concentration, the cooling effect is less. This increases cutting temperature and a faster thermal softening/chipping/notching of the tool material and higher friction at the tool-chip-workpiece interaction zones resulting in early tool failure. A good balance between the cooling and the lubrication effects seems to be found at the 10% MWF concentration as it offers the best machining performance. However, machining with flood coolant is observed to perform the best in the range of 5-7%.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)419-425
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Manufacturing Processes
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2013


  • Atomized droplets
  • Cooling and lubrication
  • Fluid concentration
  • Titanium machining
  • Tool life

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Strategy and Management
  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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