Effect of endosperm hardness on an ethanol process using a granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme

P. Wang, W. Liu, D. B. Johnston, K. D. Rausch, S. J. Schmidt, M. E. Tumbleson, Vijay Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) can hydrolyze starch at low temperature (32° C). The dry grind process using GSHE (GSH process) has fewer unit operations and no changes in process conditions (pH 4.0 and 32° C) compared to the conventional process because it dispenses with the cooking and liquefaction step. In this study, the effects of endosperm hardness, protease, urea, and GSHE levels on GSH process were evaluated. Ground corn, soft endosperm, and hard endosperm were processed using two GSHE levels (0.1 and 0.4 mL per 100 g ground material) and four treatments of protease and urea addition. Soft and hard endosperm materials were obtained by grinding and sifting flaking grits from a dry milling pilot plant; classifications were confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. During 72 h of simultaneous granular starch hydrolysis and fermentation (GSHF), ethanol and glucose profiles were determined using HPLC. Soft endosperm resulted in higher final ethanol concentrations compared to ground corn or hard endosperm. Addition of urea increased final ethanol concentrations for soft and hard endosperm. Protease addition increased ethanol concentrations and fermentation rates for soft endosperm, hard endosperm, and ground corn. The effect of protease addition on ethanol concentrations and fermentation rates was most predominant for soft endosperm, less for hard endosperm, and least for ground corn. Samples (soft endosperm, hard endosperm, or corn) with protease resulted in higher (1.0% to 10.5% v/v) ethanol concentration compared to samples with urea. The GSH process with protease requires little or no urea addition. For fermentation of soft endosperm, GSHE dose can be reduced. Due to nutrients (lipids, minerals, and soluble proteins) present in corn that enhance yeast growth, ground corn fermented faster at the beginning than hard and soft endosperm.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)307-312
Number of pages6
JournalTransactions of the ASABE
Volume53
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 29 2010

Keywords

  • Corn
  • Dry grind process
  • Endosperm
  • Endosperm hardness
  • Ethanol
  • Granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme
  • Protease
  • Urea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Forestry
  • Food Science
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Soil Science

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