Effect of electromagnetic ruler braking (embr) on transient turbulent flow in continuous slab casting using large eddy simulations

R. Chaudhary, B. G. Thomas, S. P. Vanka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Static electromagnetic braking (EMBr) fields affect greatly the turbulent flow pattern in steel continuous casting, which leads to potential benefits such as decreasing flow instability, surface defects, and inclusion entrapment if applied correctly. To gain a fundamental understanding of how EMBr affects transient turbulent flow, the current work applies large eddy simulations (LES) to investigate the effect of three EMBr ruler brake configurations on transient turbulent flow through the bifurcated nozzle and mold of a liquid-metal GaInSn model of a typical steel slab-casting process, but with deep nozzle submergence and insulated walls with no solidifying shell. The LES calculations are performed using an in-house graphic-processing-unit-based computational-fluid- dynamics code (LES-CU-FLOW) on a mesh of ~7 million brick cells. The LES model is validated first via ultrasonic velocimetry measurements in this system. It is then applied to quantify the mean and instantaneous flow structures, Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy and its budgets, and proper orthogonal modes of four cases. Positioning the strongest part of the ruler magnetic field over the nozzle bottom suppresses turbulence in this region, thus reducing nozzle well swirl and its alternation. This process leads to strong and focused jets entering the mold cavity making large-scale and low-frequency (<0.02 Hz) flow variations in the mold with detrimental surface velocity variations. Lowering the ruler below nozzle deflects the jets upward, leading to faster surface velocities than the other cases. The double-ruler and no-EMBr cases have the most stable flow. The magnetic field generates largescale vortical structures tending toward two-dimensional (2-D) turbulence. To avoid detrimental large-scale, low-frequency flow variations, it is recommended to avoid strong magnetic fields across the nozzle well and port regions

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)532-553
Number of pages22
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2012
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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