Effect of CO2 Injection on the Multiphase Flow Properties of Reservoir Rock

Kiseok Kim, Patrick M. Kundzicz, Roman Y. Makhnenko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Geologic carbon storage (GCS) has recently been drawing attention as an effective and sustainable method to reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The injection of CO2 is mainly conducted into brine-saturated reservoir formations, and assessment of the multiphase flow properties becomes essential to evaluate the injectivity and storage capacity for carbon storage. Characterization of the CO2/water flow system requires comprehensive knowledge of host rock’s relative permeability, capillary pressure, and wettability that are related to each other. Moreover, chemical reactions between the mineral grains and acidic mixture of CO2 and water may significantly affect the flow properties. In this study, a comprehensive experimental approach to characterize the chemical effect on the multiphase flow of CO2 in water-saturated reservoir rock is presented. One silica-rich formation—Berea sandstone, and two calcite-rich formations—Apulian and Indiana limestones, are selected to represent the reservoir materials. Robust experimental techniques for measurements of the relative permeability and degree of saturation based on the changes in poroelastic response are introduced. The relative permeability curves are determined, as it is shown that the curvatures and maximum degree of CO2 saturation change after CO2 treatment, especially for the limestones. In addition, the apparent contact angle increases and surface roughness decreases due to the chemical effect of CO2 injection on limestones. Finally, the advantages and limitations of the presented measurements are discussed and reported flow properties are compared to those predicted from the pore-scale analyses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)429-461
Number of pages33
JournalTransport in Porous Media
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Capillary pressure
  • Relative permeability
  • Residual saturation
  • Surface roughness
  • Wettability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • General Chemical Engineering


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