Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-olfactometry (SPME-GCO) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) were applied to measure the effects of the addition of two commercial rosemary extracts (RE) on the potent odorants in cooked beef extracts (BE). On the basis of the results of SPME-GCO and AEDA, the addition of RE imparted sweet and floral notes to BE as a result of the addition of esters and terpenes of RE. In addition, RE suppressed the formation of odorants derived via lipid oxidation and Maillard reactions. The most potent lipid oxidation volatiles consisted of 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like), (E)-2,4-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic), and eight different aldehydes (fatty). The Maillard reaction volatiles, necessary for typical cooked beef flavor, included compounds with meaty [2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-(methylthio)furan, 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio)furan], roasty (2-furanmethanethiol), caramel-like [4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2. H)-furanone], baked potato-like [3-(methylthio)propanal], and spicy [3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5. H)-furanone] attributes. The suppressive effects of RE may be caused by the action of antioxidative substances in RE alone or in combination with the pH increase in BE induced by the matrix components of RE.
- Aroma extract dilution analysis
- Beef extract
- Gas chromatography-olfactometry
- Rosemary extract
- Solid-phase microextraction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science