Using Siegler's retrieval-required task, 42 third-graders were examined before they had been introduced to multiplication in school. Inconsistent with Siegler's (1988) distribution-of-associations model, nearly one-third of the sample apparently used estimation strategies that generated a few unique answers per problem or a narrow range of answers. Furthermore, subjects who received training responded to unpracticed combinations involving two with significantly more close-miss errors and correct answers than did control subjects. These results suggest that Siegler's (1988) model is at least incomplete and that the retrieval-required task confounds retrieved and nonretrieved responses.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology