Early mental multiplication performance and the role of relational knowledge in mastering combinations involving "two"

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Using Siegler's retrieval-required task, 42 third-graders were examined before they had been introduced to multiplication in school. Inconsistent with Siegler's (1988) distribution-of-associations model, nearly one-third of the sample apparently used estimation strategies that generated a few unique answers per problem or a narrow range of answers. Furthermore, subjects who received training responded to unpracticed combinations involving two with significantly more close-miss errors and correct answers than did control subjects. These results suggest that Siegler's (1988) model is at least incomplete and that the retrieval-required task confounds retrieved and nonretrieved responses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)93-111
Number of pages19
JournalLearning and Instruction
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1993

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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