Early Age Monitoring of High Cement Replacement Mixtures for Pavement

Aniruddha Baral, Jeffery R. Roesler

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Decarbonization of concrete will require a combination of alternative binding materials and higher cement replacement rate with supplementary cementitious materials. Developing tools and methods that help engineers evaluate the properties of early age concrete pavement, such as setting time and strength gain, will be necessary to adopt new concrete mixes. Two concrete pavement test sections were constructed, a high early strength concrete mix with 25% (control) and 40% replacement of cement with fly ash (HVFAC), along with monitoring of the concrete’s setting time, saw-cut timing, and strength gain. A non-contact ultrasonic device was used to estimate setting time through measuring leaky Rayleigh wave energy transmission. The laboratory setting time of the control and HVFAC mix measured with the non-contact device was 5.5 h and 15 h, respectively, and agreed with measured isothermal calorimetry results. Further calorimeter tests showed that adding an accelerating admixture or replacing part of the cement with nano-limestone decreased the HVFAC setting time up to 4.4 h. The field setting time of the control mixture with the non-contact device measured 4.2 h, which was shorter than the laboratory estimate. Based only on the experience of construction personnel, saw-cutting for these mixtures was initiated too early and caused significant joint raveling, reinforcing the importance of in situ setting time measurement. The maturity method was successfully implemented with embedded wireless temperature sensors that rapidly and easily estimated the in-place compressive strength and improved opening time determination for concrete with high cement replacement levels, which are sensitive to the volume of supplementary cementitious materials, admixtures, and ambient conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationTransportation Research Record
PublisherSAGE Publishing
Number of pages12
StatePublished - Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Setting time
  • alternative concrete mixture
  • high volume fly ash concrete
  • maturity
  • non-contact ultrasound
  • saw cutting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering


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