A cutting-process model addressing the chip removal and edge ploughing mechanisms separately yet simultaneously is presented. The model is developed such that it is readily applicable in an industrial setting, its coefficients have physical meaning, and it can be calibrated with a concise quantity of orthogonal cutting data. The total cutting and thrust forces are each the summation of its individual components acting on the rake face and clearance face. These components are calculated using the rake and effective clearance angles from the normal and friction forces acting on each of these tool surfaces. These normal and friction forces are calculated by the chip removal and edge ploughing portions of the model, respectively, using four empirical coefficients. To calculate the clearance face forces, the interference volume is required, the calculation of which is based on a geometrical representation of the clearance face interference region. This representation is characterized in part by the depth of tool penetration, which is influenced by thermal energy generation and is therefore determined using a fifth empirical model.
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