Do experiences with nature promote learning? Converging evidence of a cause-and-effect relationship

Ming Kuo, Michael Barnes, Catherine Jordan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Do experiences with nature - from wilderness backpacking to plants in a preschool, to a wetland lesson on frogs-promote learning? Until recently, claims outstripped evidence on this question. But the field has matured, not only substantiating previously unwarranted claims but deepening our understanding of the cause-and-effect relationship between nature and learning. Hundreds of studies now bear on this question, and converging evidence strongly suggests that experiences of nature boost academic learning, personal development, and environmental stewardship. This brief integrative review summarizes recent advances and the current state of our understanding. The research on personal development and environmental stewardship is compelling although not quantitative. Report after report - from independent observers as well as participants themselves - indicate shifts in perseverance, problem solving, critical thinking, leadership, teamwork, and resilience. Similarly, over fifty studies point to nature playing a key role in the development of pro-environmental behavior, particularly by fostering an emotional connection to nature. In academic contexts, nature-based instruction outperforms traditional instruction. The evidence here is particularly strong, including experimental evidence; evidence across a wide range of samples and instructional approaches; outcomes such as standardized test scores and graduation rates; and evidence for specific explanatory mechanisms and active ingredients. Nature may promote learning by improving learners' attention, levels of stress, self-discipline, interest and enjoyment in learning, and physical activity and fitness. Nature also appears to provide a calmer, quieter, safer context for learning; a warmer, more cooperative context for learning; and a combination of "loose parts" and autonomy that fosters developmentally beneficial forms of play. It is time to take nature seriously as a resource for learning - particularly for students not effectively reached by traditional instruction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number305
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Issue numberFEB
StatePublished - 2019


  • Environmental education
  • Green schoolyard
  • Green space
  • Instruction
  • Literature review
  • Nature-based learning
  • Teaching

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'Do experiences with nature promote learning? Converging evidence of a cause-and-effect relationship'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this