Disruption of glycolysis by nutritional immunity activates a two-component system that coordinates a metabolic and antihost response by staphylococcus aureus

Paola K. Párraga Solórzano, Jiangwei Yao, Charles O. Rock, Thomas E. Kehl-Fiea

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

During infection, bacteria use two-component signal transduction systems to sense and adapt to the dynamic host environment. Despite critically contributing to infection, the activating signals of most of these regulators remain unknown. This also applies to the Staphylococcus aureus ArlRS two-component system, which contributes to virulence by coordinating the production of toxins, adhesins, and a metabolic response that enables the bacterium to overcome host-imposed manganese starvation. Restricting the availability of essential transition metals, a strategy known as nutritional immunity, constitutes a critical defense against infection. In this work, expression analysis revealed that manganese starvation imposed by the immune effector calprotectin or by the absence of glycolytic substrates activates ArlRS. Manganese starvation imposed by calprotectin also activated the ArlRS system even when glycolytic substrates were present. A combination of metabolomics, mutational analysis, and metabolic feeding experiments revealed that ArlRS is activated by alterations in metabolic flux occurring in the latter half of the glycolytic pathway. Moreover, calprotectin was found to induce expression of staphylococcal leukocidins in an ArlRS-dependent manner. These studies indicated that ArlRS is a metabolic sensor that allows S. aureus to integrate multiple environmental stresses that alter glycolytic flux to coordinate an antihost response and to adapt to manganese starvation. They also established that the latter half of glycolysis represents a checkpoint to monitor metabolic state in S. aureus. Altogether, these findings contribute to understanding how invading pathogens, such as S. aureus, adapt to the host during infection and suggest the existence of similar mechanisms in other bacterial species.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere01321-19
JournalmBio
Volume10
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2019

Keywords

  • ArlRS
  • Calprotectin
  • Glycolysis
  • Manganese
  • Nutritional immunity
  • Staphylococcus aureus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Virology

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