Disorder variables and para-fermions in two-dimensional statistical mechanics

Eduardo Fradkin, Leo P. Kadanoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


It is shown that “clock” type models in two-dimensional statistical mechanics possess order and disorder variables φn and χm with n and m falling in the range 1,2, …,p. These variables respectively describe abelian analogs to charged fields and the fields of 't Hooft monopoles with charges q = n/p and topological quantum number m. They are related to one another by a dual symmetry. Products of these operators generate, via a short-distance expansion, para-fermion operators in which rotational symmetry and the internal symmetry group are tied together. The clock models in two dimensions are shown to be an ideal laboratory where these ideas have a very simple realization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalNuclear Physics B
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1980

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics


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