Discrimination and classification of adulterants in maple syrup with the use of infrared spectroscopic techniques

M. M. Paradkar, S. Sivakesava, J. Irudayaraj

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Food adulteration is a profit-making business for some unscrupulous manufacturers. Maple syrup is a soft target for adulterators owing to its simplicity of chemical composition. The use of infrared spectroscopic techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and near-infrared (NIR) as a tool to detect adulterants such as cane and beet invert syrups as well as cane and beet sugar solutions in maple syrup was investigated. The FTIR spectra of adulterated samples were characterised and the regions of 800-1200 cm-1 (carbohydrates) and 1200-1800 and 2800-3200 cm-1 (carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and amino acids) were used for detection. The NIR spectral region between 1100 and 1660 nm was used for analysis. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and canonical variate analysis (CVA) were used for discriminant analysis, while partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) were used for quantitative analysis. FTIR was more accurate in predicting adulteration using the two different regions (R2>0.93 and 0.98) compared with NIR (R2 > 0.93). Classification and quantification of adulterants in maple syrup show that both NIR and FTIR can be used for detecting adulterants such as pure beet and cane sugar solutions, but FTIR was superior to NIR in detecting invert syrups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)497-504
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Issue number5
StatePublished - Apr 17 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Adulteration
  • Chemometrics
  • IR spectroscopy
  • Maple syrup
  • Sugars

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


Dive into the research topics of 'Discrimination and classification of adulterants in maple syrup with the use of infrared spectroscopic techniques'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this