Discrimination and classification of adulterants in maple syrup with the use of infrared spectroscopic techniques

M. M. Paradkar, S. Sivakesava, J. Irudayaraj

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Food adulteration is a profit-making business for some unscrupulous manufacturers. Maple syrup is a soft target of adulterators owing to its simplicity of chemical composition. In this study the use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to detect adulterants such as cane and beet invert syrups as well as cane and beet sugar solutions in maple syrup was investigated. The FTIR spectrum of adulterated samples was characterised and the regions 800-1200 cm-1 (carbohydrates) and 1200-1800 and 2800-3200 cm-1 (carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and amino acids) were used for detection. The region between 1100 and 1660 nm in the NIR spectrum was used for analysis. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and canonical variate analysis (CVA) were used for discriminant analysis, while partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) were used for quantitative analysis. FTIR was more accurate in predicting adulteration using two different regions (R2 > 0.93 and > 0.98) compared with NIR (R2 > 0.93). Classification and quantification of adulterants in maple syrup show that NIR and FTIR can be used for detecting adulterants such as pure beet and cane sugar solutions, but FTIR was superior to NIR in detecting invert syrups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)714-721
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Issue number7
StatePublished - May 15 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Adulteration
  • Chemometrics
  • Maple syrup
  • Spectroscopy
  • Sugars

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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