Direct manipulation of recurrent models

Paul Sherman, John C. Hart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper describes an interactive modeling method which allows a user to directly manipulate a fractal object defined by a recurrent iterated function system (RIFS). The method allows the user to nail points on the attractor to their current position, and drag other points to a desired position. The attractor changes shape to accomodate the new location of the dragged point. An incremental Newton's method solves the system of equations generated to find a new set of RIFS parameters that satisfy the constraints. These solutions can be generated in real time for simple models on modern computer hardware, resulting in a fully interactive recurrent modeling system for designing models that closely match specific natural shapes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)143-151
Number of pages9
JournalComputers and Graphics (Pergamon)
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2003


  • Fractals
  • Interactive modeling
  • Recurrent iterated function systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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