Direct ink writing of three-dimensional ceramic structures

Jennifer A. Lewis, James E. Smay, John Stuecker, Joseph Cesarano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The ability to pattern ceramic materials in three dimensions (3D) is critical for structural, functional, and biomedical applications. One facile approach is direct ink writing (DIW), in which 3D structures are built layer-by-layer through the deposition of colloidal- or polymer-based inks. This approach allows one to design and rapidly fabricate ceramic materials in complex 3D shapes without the need for expensive tooling, dies, or lithographic masks. In this feature article, we present both droplet-and filament-based DIW techniques. We focus on the various ink designs and their corresponding rheological behavior, ink deposition mechanics, potential shapes and the toolpaths required, and representative examples of 3D ceramic structures assembled by each technique. The opportunities and challenges associated with DIW are also highlighted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3599-3609
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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