Direct Electrical Probing of Periodic Modulation of Zinc-Dopant Distributions in Planar Gallium Arsenide Nanowires

Wonsik Choi, Eric Seabron, Parsian K. Mohseni, Jeong Dong Kim, Tobias Gokus, Adrian Cernescu, Pascal Pochet, Harley T Johnson, William L. Wilson, Xiuling Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Selective lateral epitaxial (SLE) semiconductor nanowires (NWs), with their perfect in-plane epitaxial alignment, ability to form lateral complex p-n junctions in situ, and compatibility with planar processing, are a distinctive platform for next-generation device development. However, the incorporation and distribution of impurity dopants in these planar NWs via the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism remain relatively unexplored. Here, we present a detailed study of SLE planar GaAs NWs containing multiple alternating axial segments doped with Si and Zn impurities by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The dopant profile of the lateral multi-p-n junction GaAs NWs was imaged simultaneously with nanowire topography using scanning microwave impedance microscopy and correlated with infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopy. Our results provide unambiguous evidence that Zn dopants in the periodically twinned and topologically corrugated p-type segments are preferentially segregated at twin plane boundaries, while Si impurity atoms are uniformly distributed within the n-type segments of the NWs. These results are further supported by microwave impedance modulation microscopy. The density functional theory based modeling shows that the presence of Zn dopant atoms reduces the formation energy of these twin planes, and the effect becomes significantly stronger with a slight increase of Zn concentration. This implies that the twin formation is expected to appear when a threshold planar concentration of Zn is achieved, making the onset and twin periodicity dependent on both Zn concentration and nanowire diameter, in perfect agreement with our experimental observations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1530-1539
Number of pages10
JournalACS Nano
Volume11
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 28 2017

Fingerprint

Gallium arsenide
Nanowires
gallium
Zinc
nanowires
zinc
Doping (additives)
Modulation
modulation
Impurities
microscopy
p-n junctions
impurities
Microscopic examination
Microwaves
impedance
microwaves
Atoms
Metallorganic chemical vapor deposition
energy of formation

Keywords

  • GaAs
  • IR-sSNOM
  • MIM
  • MOCVD
  • VLS
  • doping
  • nanoIR
  • nanowire
  • sMIM
  • selective lateral epitaxy
  • twin plane defect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Direct Electrical Probing of Periodic Modulation of Zinc-Dopant Distributions in Planar Gallium Arsenide Nanowires. / Choi, Wonsik; Seabron, Eric; Mohseni, Parsian K.; Kim, Jeong Dong; Gokus, Tobias; Cernescu, Adrian; Pochet, Pascal; Johnson, Harley T; Wilson, William L.; Li, Xiuling.

In: ACS Nano, Vol. 11, No. 2, 28.02.2017, p. 1530-1539.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Choi, W, Seabron, E, Mohseni, PK, Kim, JD, Gokus, T, Cernescu, A, Pochet, P, Johnson, HT, Wilson, WL & Li, X 2017, 'Direct Electrical Probing of Periodic Modulation of Zinc-Dopant Distributions in Planar Gallium Arsenide Nanowires', ACS Nano, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 1530-1539. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.6b06853
Choi, Wonsik ; Seabron, Eric ; Mohseni, Parsian K. ; Kim, Jeong Dong ; Gokus, Tobias ; Cernescu, Adrian ; Pochet, Pascal ; Johnson, Harley T ; Wilson, William L. ; Li, Xiuling. / Direct Electrical Probing of Periodic Modulation of Zinc-Dopant Distributions in Planar Gallium Arsenide Nanowires. In: ACS Nano. 2017 ; Vol. 11, No. 2. pp. 1530-1539.
@article{bc44efdf5d234d98b05405c6c1a6d0d2,
title = "Direct Electrical Probing of Periodic Modulation of Zinc-Dopant Distributions in Planar Gallium Arsenide Nanowires",
abstract = "Selective lateral epitaxial (SLE) semiconductor nanowires (NWs), with their perfect in-plane epitaxial alignment, ability to form lateral complex p-n junctions in situ, and compatibility with planar processing, are a distinctive platform for next-generation device development. However, the incorporation and distribution of impurity dopants in these planar NWs via the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism remain relatively unexplored. Here, we present a detailed study of SLE planar GaAs NWs containing multiple alternating axial segments doped with Si and Zn impurities by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The dopant profile of the lateral multi-p-n junction GaAs NWs was imaged simultaneously with nanowire topography using scanning microwave impedance microscopy and correlated with infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopy. Our results provide unambiguous evidence that Zn dopants in the periodically twinned and topologically corrugated p-type segments are preferentially segregated at twin plane boundaries, while Si impurity atoms are uniformly distributed within the n-type segments of the NWs. These results are further supported by microwave impedance modulation microscopy. The density functional theory based modeling shows that the presence of Zn dopant atoms reduces the formation energy of these twin planes, and the effect becomes significantly stronger with a slight increase of Zn concentration. This implies that the twin formation is expected to appear when a threshold planar concentration of Zn is achieved, making the onset and twin periodicity dependent on both Zn concentration and nanowire diameter, in perfect agreement with our experimental observations.",
keywords = "GaAs, IR-sSNOM, MIM, MOCVD, VLS, doping, nanoIR, nanowire, sMIM, selective lateral epitaxy, twin plane defect",
author = "Wonsik Choi and Eric Seabron and Mohseni, {Parsian K.} and Kim, {Jeong Dong} and Tobias Gokus and Adrian Cernescu and Pascal Pochet and Johnson, {Harley T} and Wilson, {William L.} and Xiuling Li",
year = "2017",
month = "2",
day = "28",
doi = "10.1021/acsnano.6b06853",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "11",
pages = "1530--1539",
journal = "ACS Nano",
issn = "1936-0851",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Direct Electrical Probing of Periodic Modulation of Zinc-Dopant Distributions in Planar Gallium Arsenide Nanowires

AU - Choi, Wonsik

AU - Seabron, Eric

AU - Mohseni, Parsian K.

AU - Kim, Jeong Dong

AU - Gokus, Tobias

AU - Cernescu, Adrian

AU - Pochet, Pascal

AU - Johnson, Harley T

AU - Wilson, William L.

AU - Li, Xiuling

PY - 2017/2/28

Y1 - 2017/2/28

N2 - Selective lateral epitaxial (SLE) semiconductor nanowires (NWs), with their perfect in-plane epitaxial alignment, ability to form lateral complex p-n junctions in situ, and compatibility with planar processing, are a distinctive platform for next-generation device development. However, the incorporation and distribution of impurity dopants in these planar NWs via the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism remain relatively unexplored. Here, we present a detailed study of SLE planar GaAs NWs containing multiple alternating axial segments doped with Si and Zn impurities by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The dopant profile of the lateral multi-p-n junction GaAs NWs was imaged simultaneously with nanowire topography using scanning microwave impedance microscopy and correlated with infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopy. Our results provide unambiguous evidence that Zn dopants in the periodically twinned and topologically corrugated p-type segments are preferentially segregated at twin plane boundaries, while Si impurity atoms are uniformly distributed within the n-type segments of the NWs. These results are further supported by microwave impedance modulation microscopy. The density functional theory based modeling shows that the presence of Zn dopant atoms reduces the formation energy of these twin planes, and the effect becomes significantly stronger with a slight increase of Zn concentration. This implies that the twin formation is expected to appear when a threshold planar concentration of Zn is achieved, making the onset and twin periodicity dependent on both Zn concentration and nanowire diameter, in perfect agreement with our experimental observations.

AB - Selective lateral epitaxial (SLE) semiconductor nanowires (NWs), with their perfect in-plane epitaxial alignment, ability to form lateral complex p-n junctions in situ, and compatibility with planar processing, are a distinctive platform for next-generation device development. However, the incorporation and distribution of impurity dopants in these planar NWs via the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism remain relatively unexplored. Here, we present a detailed study of SLE planar GaAs NWs containing multiple alternating axial segments doped with Si and Zn impurities by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The dopant profile of the lateral multi-p-n junction GaAs NWs was imaged simultaneously with nanowire topography using scanning microwave impedance microscopy and correlated with infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopy. Our results provide unambiguous evidence that Zn dopants in the periodically twinned and topologically corrugated p-type segments are preferentially segregated at twin plane boundaries, while Si impurity atoms are uniformly distributed within the n-type segments of the NWs. These results are further supported by microwave impedance modulation microscopy. The density functional theory based modeling shows that the presence of Zn dopant atoms reduces the formation energy of these twin planes, and the effect becomes significantly stronger with a slight increase of Zn concentration. This implies that the twin formation is expected to appear when a threshold planar concentration of Zn is achieved, making the onset and twin periodicity dependent on both Zn concentration and nanowire diameter, in perfect agreement with our experimental observations.

KW - GaAs

KW - IR-sSNOM

KW - MIM

KW - MOCVD

KW - VLS

KW - doping

KW - nanoIR

KW - nanowire

KW - sMIM

KW - selective lateral epitaxy

KW - twin plane defect

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85014200174&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85014200174&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/acsnano.6b06853

DO - 10.1021/acsnano.6b06853

M3 - Article

C2 - 28135065

AN - SCOPUS:85014200174

VL - 11

SP - 1530

EP - 1539

JO - ACS Nano

JF - ACS Nano

SN - 1936-0851

IS - 2

ER -